A study of biology includes the study of the chemical basis of living organisms, DNA. Other related sciences include microbiology and organic chemistry. The word science comes from a Latin word scientica, which means knowledge, or information. Science is a process of systematically gathering detailed information and gaining exact knowledge.
Timeline of evolution and Evolutionary history of life The ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, about 4 billion years ago.
For about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life.
Here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea.
Later, some eukaryotes that already contained mitochondria also engulfed cyanobacteria -like organisms, leading to the formation of chloroplasts in algae and plants.
Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells and are typically 0. However, a few species are visible to the unaided eye—for example, Thiomargarita namibiensis is up to half a millimetre long  and Epulopiscium fishelsoni reaches 0.
A small number of other unusual shapes have been described, such as star-shaped bacteria. Many bacterial species exist simply as single cells, others associate in characteristic patterns: Neisseria form diploids pairsStreptococcus form chains, and Staphylococcus group together in "bunch of grapes" clusters.
Bacteria can also group to form larger multicellular structures, such as the elongated filaments of Actinobacteriathe aggregates of Myxobacteriaand the complex hyphae of Streptomyces.
These biofilms and mats can range from a few micrometres in thickness to up to half a metre in depth, and may contain multiple species of bacteria, protists and archaea. Bacteria living in biofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components, forming secondary structures, such as microcoloniesthrough which there are networks of channels to enable better diffusion of nutrients.
Intracellular structures The bacterial cell is surrounded by a cell membrane which is made primarily of phospholipids. This membrane encloses the contents of the cell and acts as a barrier to hold nutrients, proteins and other essential components of the cytoplasm within the cell.
The general lack of internal membranes in bacteria means these reactions, such as electron transportoccur across the cell membrane between the cytoplasm and the outside of the cell or periplasm.
Scale bars indicate nm. Most bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, and their genetic material is typically a single circular bacterial chromosome of DNA located in the cytoplasm in an irregularly shaped body called the nucleoid. Like all living organismsbacteria contain ribosomes for the production of proteins, but the structure of the bacterial ribosome is different from that of eukaryotes and Archaea.
Cell envelope Around the outside of the cell membrane is the cell wall. Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan also called mureinwhich is made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by peptides containing D- amino acids.
The cell wall is essential to the survival of many bacteria, and the antibiotic penicillin is able to kill bacteria by inhibiting a step in the synthesis of peptidoglycan. The names originate from the reaction of cells to the Gram staina long-standing test for the classification of bacterial species.
In contrast, gram-negative bacteria have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by a second lipid membrane containing lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins. This includes clinically important bacteria such as Mycobacteria which have a thick peptidoglycan cell wall like a gram-positive bacterium, but also a second outer layer of lipids.
S-layers have diverse but mostly poorly understood functions, but are known to act as virulence factors in Campylobacter and contain surface enzymes in Bacillus stearothermophilus. Flagella are driven by the energy released by the transfer of ions down an electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane.
They are distributed over the surface of the cell, and resemble fine hairs when seen under the electron microscope. Fimbriae are believed to be involved in attachment to solid surfaces or to other cells, and are essential for the virulence of some bacterial pathogens.
These structures can protect cells from engulfment by eukaryotic cells such as macrophages part of the human immune system. These transfer proteins from the cytoplasm into the periplasm or into the environment around the cell.
Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are intensively studied. Microbial metabolism Bacteria exhibit an extremely wide variety of metabolic types.Learn more about biology, paramecium, chemistry, electronics, microscopy (Microscope), Amateur Radio, Photography, Radio Astronomy, Science, Home Learning and much.
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Feb 18, · if you have a lab write up/lab report already written please email it to me:)) [email protected] THANKS!!!!! 1. Explain how mitosis leads to 2 daughter cells, each of which is diploid & genetically identical to the original benjaminpohle.com: Resolved.
There will be multiple choice questions that relate to possible lab results that you would see from these labs, and one of the four free response questions will be based on one of the 12 labs..
For the free response question, you are typically asked to create a hypothesis, lab procedure, sample data you might collect if you did the lab, and a brief conclusion or analysis. Meiosis is very similar to mitosis, but it is a longer process. In mitosis, only one cell division occurs resulting in two daughter cells with 46 chromosomes.
In meiosis, there are two cell division and at the end of telophase 2, there are four haploid cells each having 23 chromosomes. AP Biology Lab Write-up Format You may use the following document to help you structure all formally written labs.
Some labs will have specific changes to this format, but we will describe these in class. The Cell Cycle & Mitosis. Meiosis.
Population Genetics Lab (Hardy-Weinberg) Spreadsheet for .