The Bachelor of Fine Arts B. The College also awards the Bachelor of Music B. University programs leading to teacher certification in art and foreign languages are available to undergraduate students registered in the Dorothy F.
Spanish stele of a girl with a pandura2nd century A. The earliest image showing a lute-like instrument came from Mesopotamia prior to BC. Under the Sasanians, a short almond shaped lute from Bactria came to be called the barbat or barbud, which was developed into the later Islamic world's oud or ud.
During the 8th and 9th centuries, many musicians and artists from across the Islamic world flocked to Iberia. Two varieties of soundholes are present in the image. The squiggly lines on the soundboard, looking like a 3 or W, were a characteristic of Muslim-constructed instruments. Curt Sachs linked this instrument with the mandola, the kopuz and the gambusand named the bowed version rabab.
The panduraa lute the Romans brought to Spain, was also strung with three strings, and later called trichordon by musicologists.
The instrument is strung with four courses of two strings, just as most mandolins are strung today. Beside the introduction of the lute to Spain Andalusia by the Moors, another important point of transfer of the lute from Arabian to European culture was Sicilywhere it was brought either by Byzantine or later by Muslim musicians.
European lute beginnings[ edit ] A distinct European tradition of lute development is noticeable in pictures and sculpture from the 13th century onward. As early as the beginning of the 14th century, strings were doubled into courses on the miniature lute or gitternused throughout Europe.
The small soundhole shaped like a "3" or a "W", typical of Muslim-made instruments and seen in the Cantigas de Santa Maria illustrations on instruments played by Europeans, were not typical of European instruments.
Mandolino means small mandola; this was the larger instrument. The mandore was not a final form, and the design was tinkered with wherever it was built. The Italians, for instance, redesigned their "mandola" and produced the mandolino or Baroque mandolin, a small catgut -strung mandola, strung in 4, 5 or 6 courses tuned in fourths: Pasquale Vinaccia, "perfector of the modern Italian mandolin".
Not limited to mandolins, the Vinaccias made stringed instruments, including violins, cellos, guitars, mandolas and mandolins.
Noted members of the family who made mandolins are known today from labels inside of surviving instruments and include Vincenzo, Giovanni, Domenico, and Antonio and his sons Gaetano and Gennaro, grandson Pasquale and great-grandsons Gennaro and Achille.
The mandolins they made changed over generations, from mandolinos with flat soundboards and gut-strings, through mandolins with a bent soundboard and bronze or bronze-and-gut strings, into mandolins with bent soundboards that used steel or steel-and-bronze strings.
Calace, Embergher and others[ edit ] Other luthiers who built mandolins included Raffaele Calace onwards in Naples, Luigi Embergher  — in Rome and Arpinothe Ferrari family onwards, also originally mandolino makers in Rome, and De Santi — in Rome.
The Neapolitan style of mandolin construction was adopted and developed by others, notably in Rome, giving two distinct but similar types of mandolin — Neapolitan and Roman. The export market for mandolins from Italy dried up aroundand when Carmine de Laurentiis wrote a mandolin method inthe Music World magazine wrote that the mandolin was "out of date.
The Mandolin "Estudiantina" of Mayenne, France around when Mandolin orchestras were at the height of their popularity. That era from the late 19th century into the early 20th century has come to be known as the "Golden Age" of the mandolin.
After the First World War, the instrument's popularity again fell, though gradually. Also, modern conveniences phonograph records, bicycle and automobiles, outdoor sports competed with learning to play an instrument for fun. The second decline was not as complete as the first.
Thousands of people had learned to play the instrument. Even as the second wave of mandolin popularity declined in the early 20th century, players began using new versions of the mandolin in new forms of music.
Construction[ edit ] Schematic drawing of a bowlback mandolin Mandolins have a body that acts as a resonatorattached to a neck. The resonating body may be shaped as a bowl necked bowl lutes or a box necked box lutes. Traditional Italian mandolins, such as the Neapolitan mandolin, meet the necked bowl description.
The strings are suspended over the neck and soundboard and pass over a floating bridge. The neck is either flat or has a slight radius, and is covered with a fingerboard with frets. This encourages the use of tremolo rapid picking of one or more pairs of strings to create sustained notes or chords.For many people, listening to music elicits such an emotional response that the idea of dredging it for statistics and structure can seem odd or even misguided.
Music, Film, TV and Political News Coverage. Building an Acoustic Guitar. Chapter 1 - Parts And Pieces. What's In The Kit The first thing that you need to do is to identify all the parts of the kit.
This is a complete Journal issue. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Buck Owens' track to stardom had an unorthodox start and believe it or not, his singing didn't launch that journey as much as his guitar skills; it started when another singer needed a lead guitarist on short notice.
With his second Capitol recording session looming in September, , Tommy Collins, a .