A study of biology includes the study of the chemical basis of living organisms, DNA. Other related sciences include microbiology and organic chemistry. The word science comes from a Latin word scientica, which means knowledge, or information.
Select Page Citric Acid Cycle: The cycle involves eight chemical reactions, and at the end, the original four-carbon molecule is produced.
Click to read a transcription of the audio The citric acid cycle is a series of chemical reactions that takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. The citric acid cycle goes by many names including the tricarboxylic acid or TCA cycle and the Krebs cycle.
Citric acid refers to the citrate that is produced in the first step of the pathway. The tricarboxylic acid title gets its name from the three carbon dioxides that are produced for each fully oxidized pyruvate. Krebs refers to Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the full cycle in He was eventually awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in for his discovery.
In the first step of the cycle, an enzyme called citrate synthase joins the two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA with the four-carbon oxaloacetate to form a six-carbon citrate. In step two, an enzyme called aconitase converts citrate into isocitrate.
The carbon that was lost is released as carbon dioxide and one NADH is also formed.
The carbon dioxide that is released was originally part of oxaloacetate and not acetyl CoA. Similar to step three, this reaction produces one carbon dioxide and one NADH. In step five, a succinyl CoA synthetase enzyme converts succinyl CoA into succinate. In step six, an enzyme called succinate dehydrogenase converts succinate into fumarate.
This step makes one FADH2. In step seven, a fumarate hydratase enzyme then converts fumarate into malate. In the final step of the citric acid cycle, a malate dehydrogenase enzyme converts malate back to oxaloacetate.
Like all steps involving a dehydrogenase, a coenzyme is produced. Here it is NADH. The oxaloacetate that was regenerated through the citric acid cycle is now ready to join with another acetyl group and begin the cycle a second time.
For every one glucose that is broken down through glycolysis, two pyruvates will be produced. These two pyruvates will produce two acetyl CoAs.How is ATP produced in cells; what is the difference between the energy-producing process in animal cells and plant cells?
How much ATP is produced? Photosynthesis/Calvin cycle, Cellular Respiration/Citric Acid Cycle study guide by tmatherne includes 25 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades.
Transcript of Light Cycle, Calvin Cycle, Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and Electron Transport Chain Calvin Cycle This is actually the dark reactions part of photosynthesis.
(Refer back to photosynthesis) Glycolysis This process takes place in the cytoplasm. The Citric Acid Cycle is also known as the Krebs Cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle. It is a series of chemical reactions that takes place in the cell that breaks down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
Mar 12, · In which Hank does some push ups for science and describes the "economy" of cellular respiration and the various processes whereby our bodies create energy in the form of ATP.
The citric acid cycle is a key metabolic pathway that connects carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. The reactions of the cycle are carried out by eight enzymes that completely oxidize acetate, in the form of acetyl-CoA, into two molecules each of carbon dioxide and water.