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Pre-Galtonian philosophies[ edit ] The philosophy was most famously expounded by Platowho believed human reproduction should be monitored and controlled by the state. Mates, in Plato's Republic, would be chosen by a "marriage number" in which the quality of the individual would be quantitatively analyzed, and persons of high numbers would be allowed to procreate with other persons of high numbers.
In theory, this would lead to predictable results and the improvement of the human race. However, Plato acknowledged the failure of the "marriage number" since "gold soul" persons could still produce "bronze soul" children.
Other ancient civilizations, such as Rome Athens  and Spartapracticed infanticide through exposure and execution as a form of phenotypic selection. In Sparta, newborns were inspected by the city's elders, who decided the fate of the infant.
If the child was deemed incapable of living, it was usually exposed   in the Apothetae near the Taygetus mountain.
Trials for babies included bathing them in wine and exposing them to the elements. To Sparta, this would ensure only the strongest survived and procreated.
In addition, patriarchs in Roman society were given the right to "discard" infants at their discretion. This was often done by drowning undesired newborns in the Tiber River. Commenting on the Roman practice of eugenics, the philosopher Seneca wrote that: Yet this is not the work of anger, but of reason - to separate the sound from the worthless".
Sir Francis Galton systematized these ideas and practices according to new knowledge about the evolution of man and animals provided by the theory of his half-cousin Charles Darwin during the s and s. After reading Darwin's Origin of SpeciesGalton built upon Darwin's ideas whereby the mechanisms of natural selection were potentially thwarted by human civilization.
He reasoned that, since many human societies sought to protect the underprivileged and weak, those societies were at odds with the natural selection responsible for extinction of the weakest; and only by changing these social policies could society be saved from a "reversion towards mediocrity", a phrase he first coined in statistics and which later changed to the now common " regression towards the mean ".
Galton's basic argument was "genius" and "talent" were hereditary traits in humans although neither he nor Darwin yet had a working model of this type of heredity.
He concluded since one could use artificial selection to exaggerate traits in other animals, one could expect similar results when applying such models to humans. As he wrote in the introduction to Hereditary Genius: I propose to show in this book that a man's natural abilities are derived by inheritance, under exactly the same limitations as are the form and physical features of the whole organic world.
Consequently, as it is easy, notwithstanding those limitations, to obtain by careful selection a permanent breed of dogs or horses gifted with peculiar powers of running, or of doing anything else, so it would be quite practicable to produce a highly gifted race of men by judicious marriages during several consecutive generations.
Galton did not propose any selection methods; rather, he hoped a solution would be found if social mores changed in a way that encouraged people to see the importance of breeding. He first used the word eugenic in his Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development,  a book in which he meant "to touch on various topics more or less connected with that of the cultivation of race, or, as we might call it, with 'eugenic' questions".This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
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The history of eugenics is the study of development and advocacy of ideas related to eugenics around the world. Early eugenic ideas were discussed in Ancient Greece and Rome.
The height of the modern eugenics movement came in the late 19th and early 20th century. Iron is a mineral found in ever cell in the human body and proper iron intake is necessary to remain happy and healthy.
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