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Letters[ edit ] The most notable characteristic of the tengwar script is that the shapes of the letters correspond to the distinctive features of the sounds they represent.
The Quenya consonant system has 5 places of articulation: The velars distinguish between plain and labialized that is, articulated with rounded lips, or followed by a [w] sound.
Each point of articulation, and the corresponding tengwa series, has a name in the classical Quenya mode. Similarly shaped letters reflect not only similar places of articulation, but also similar manners of articulation.
In the classical Quenya mode, row 1 represents voiceless stops, row 2 voiced prenasalized stops, row 3 voiceless fricatives, row 4 voiceless prenasalized stops, row 5 nasal stops, and row 6 approximants.
Both vary among modes. Each series is headed by the basic signs composed of a vertical stem descending below the line, and a single bow. These basic signs represent the voiceless stop consonants for that series. In rows of the general use, there are the following correspondences between letter shapes and manners of articulation: Doubling the bow turns the voiceless consonant into a voiced one.
Raising the stem above the line turns it into the corresponding fricative. Shortening it so it is only the height of the bow creates the corresponding nasal. In most modes, the signs with shortened stem and single bow do not correspond to the voiceless nasals, but to the approximants.
In addition to these variations of the tengwar shapes, there is yet another variation, the use of stems that are extended both above and below the line. This shape may correspond to other consonant variations required. In such cases, the "w" sign in the previous paragraph is used for "v".
Irregularly formed letters[ edit ] There are additional letters that do not have regular shapes. They may represent, e.
Their use varies considerably from mode to mode. Some aficionados have added more letters not found in Tolkien's writings for use in their modes.
Tehtar[ edit ] Tehtar A tehta Quenya "marking" is a diacritic placed above or below the tengwa. They can represent vowels, consonant doubling, or nasal sound. Long vowels may be indicated by doubling the signs.The Muse Writers Center has many teachers who are professional writers, published in poetry, fiction, plays, screenplays, and nonfiction.
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Old English / Anglo-Saxon was first written with a version of the Runic alphabet known as Anglo-Saxon or Anglo-Frisian runes, or futhorc/fuþorc. This alphabet was an extended version of Elder Futhark with between 26 and 33 letters.
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