Protect your community by starting a security business using a security guard business plan similar to this one to compile your own. Executive Summary Batten-Hatchez Security is a start-up security company founded by Chindit Batten, an experienced former police sergeant and security company manager. Located in Coastalburg at its launch, the business will provide security guards, security audits, and referrals to equipment providers to commercial buildings, retail businesses, and, eventually special event venues and other clients.
April 26, QUESTION PRESENTED 1 Under New York law, 2 did 3 Loman's Fashions' description of a designer leather coat in an advertising circular constitute an offer 4 to sell the coat which became a binding contract when the text of the advertisement indicated that the coats were a "manufacturer's closeout" and that the early shopper would be rewarded, and when a shopper signified her intent to purchase the coat according to the advertised terms?
The ad announced that the store would open at 7 a. The store manager declined, and the shopper filed a complaint in Small Claims Court, 9 alleging that Loman's had breached a contract by failing to sell the advertised leather coats at the advertised price.
In this case, the manufacturer had discontinued the line of coats and Loman's was not prepared to sell other, designer leather coats at such a drastic markdown. Loman expressed concern 11 that, if the shopper's interpretation were to hold, Loman's would have to reconsider its marketing strategies; she had assumed that the advertised terms applied while supplies lasted.
She asks whether Loman's would have any contractual obligation under these circumstances. Loman's contends that the advertisement was intended to apply while supplies of the item lasted, and that is it not obligated to sell the shopper a comparably valued coat at the advertised price.
The issue in this case is whether a retailer's advertisement will be considered to be an offer that may be turned into a binding contract by a shopper who signifies an intention to purchase the items described in the advertisement. A court would likely conclude that the shopper did not state a cause of action for breach of contract because the advertisement did not constitute an offer which, upon acceptance, could be turned into a contract but rather and invitation to negotiate.
The only general test is the inquiry whether the facts show that some performance was promised in positive terms in return for something requested. However, a purchaser may not make a valid contract by mere acceptance of a "proposition.
Nor does the purchaser have the right to select an item which the seller does not have in stock or is not willing to sell at a reduced price.
In Schenectady Stove Co. Under these circumstances, the Court of Appeals held that no contract was ever made between the parties with respect to an order that defendant submitted because the plaintiff had not made an offer that was complete and definite in all material terms.
Hence, it was not possible for the defendant to make a valid contract by mere acceptance of a "proposition. Similarly, in Lovett, a department store advertised that it would sell, deliver, and install certain "wellknown standard makes of radio receivers at 25 per cent.
The plaintiff had demanded a particular model of radio that was not listed in the ad, and the defendant had declined to sell it at the reduced price.
The court held that an advertisement by a department store was not an offer but an invitation to all persons that the advertiser was ready to receive offers for the goods upon the stated terms, reasoning that such a general advertisement was distinguishable from an offer of a reward or other payment in return for some requested performance.
The court further held that, even assuming the plaintiff's "acceptance" turned the offer into a contract, the purchaser did not have the right to select the item which the defendant did not have in stock or was not willing to sell at a reduced price.
By its terms, the advertisement announced that it had a stock of coats to sell, and described the coats as a manufacturer's closeout selling at a substantially reduced price.
As the court noted in Lovett, 19 a prospective purchaser does not have the right to select items that the retailer does not have in stock or is not willing to sell at a reduced price. However, the ad indicated that the store, opening for business on the day of the sale at 7 a.
By announcing that "the early bird catches the savings," the ad could fairly be read to mean that the supplies were not unlimited. The question should be sufficiently narrow and should be objective. Here, since the question presented is designed to highlight whether the facts indicate that a formal contract offer has been made, you would not use the term "offer" in framing the question, i.
Rather, reserve your legal conclusions here, whether or not the advertisement constituted a formal offer for the short answer section. Although the "question presented" section is short, it must i provide a concise reference to the legal claim and relevant doctrine and ii incorporate the most legally significant facts of your case.
A complete and well-balanced question presented is incisive — it immediately gets to the heart of the legal question — and it orients the reader to the factual context. You may not be sure which facts are most legally significant when you first start writing the memo.
Your thinking may become clearer and better organized as the writing proceeds. You would ascertain which facts are legally significant by referring to the factual criteria based on elements or factors in the legal authority relevant to the question — e.
For this reason, many people do not write the final version of the question presented or the short answer until they have almost completed the "discussion" section of the memo. The balanced description of law and fact that you provide in the question presented should be mirrored in the short answer.
The short answer serves two functions: The short answer should function as a roadmap to help readers feel oriented when they move on to the discussion. Then give a brief usually no more than four or five sentences long self-contained explanation of the reasons for your conclusion, applying the rule to the facts of your case.
As a general rule, include no citations. Bear in mind that the busy law-trained reader will value conciseness in this section, so try to present only those facts that are legally significant or that are necessary to make the problem clear. At the same time, bear in mind that the office memo should be a stand-alone document that can fully inform any colleague in your law office who may read it; therefore, the facts section should always contain a full and coherent recitation of the relevant facts, whether or not the principal reader of the memo already knows them unless, of course, you were instructed to do otherwise.
In this memo, the writer has addressed the heart of the incident — the advertisement, the sale of the coats, the arrival of the unhappy shopper — in chronological order in the first paragraph; a second paragraph collects relevant background information about the client.
In your own memo, you can recount the facts completely chronologically, you can put the most important incidents or facts first, or you can cluster the facts into discrete topics if the facts are complex and if this is the easiest way to understand them.
Choose the organizational scheme that you think will make the facts most clear and memorable to the reader.As an integral part of the classroom curriculum, DECA’s industry-validated competitive events are aligned with the National Curriculum Standards in the career clusters of marketing, business management and administration, finance, and hospitality and tourism.
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