Federative Republic of Brazil Major Cities: Supplemental material has been added to increase coverage of minor cities, facts have been updated, and some material has been condensed. Readers are encouraged to visit the Department of State's web site at http: With a population of roughly million people, it sprawls across 3.
Posted on April 27, by Scott Alexander I. I read it anyway on the advice of people who kept telling me it explains everything about America. And it sort of does. Different parts of the country were settled by very different groups of Englishmen with different regional backgrounds, religions, social classes, and philosophies.
The colonization process essentially extracted a single stratum of English society, isolated it from all the others, and then plunked it down on its own somewhere in the Eastern US.
I used to play Alpha Centauri, a computer game about the colonization of its namesake star system. One of the dynamics that made it so interesting was its backstory, where a Puerto Rican survivalist, an African plutocrat, and other colorful characters organized their own colonial expeditions and competed to seize territory and resources.
You got to explore not only the settlement of a new world, but the settlement of a new world by societies dominated by extreme founder effects. What kind of weird pathologies and wonderful innovations do you get when a group of overly romantic Scottish environmentalists is allowed to develop on its own trajectory free of all non-overly-romantic-Scottish-environmentalist influences?
Fischer describes four of these migrations: The Puritans I hear about these people every Thanksgiving, then never think about them again for the next days.
They were a Calvinist sect that dissented against the Church of England and followed their own brand of dour, industrious, fun-hating Christianity.
Most of them were from East Anglia, the part of England just northeast of London. I knew about the Mayflower, I knew about the black hats and silly shoes, I even knew about the time Squanto threatened to release a bioweapon buried under Plymouth Rock that would bring about the apocalypse.
Much like eg Unitarians today, the Puritans were a religious group that drew disproportionately from the most educated and education-obsessed parts of the English populace. Literacy among immigrants to Massachusetts was twice as high as the English average, and in an age when the vast majority of Europeans were farmers most immigrants to Massachusetts were skilled craftsmen or scholars.
The Puritans tried to import African slaves, but they all died of the cold. The average family size in Waltham, Massachusetts in the s was 9. Everyone was compelled by law to live in families.
Town officials would search the town for single people and, if found, order them to join a family; if they refused, they were sent to jail. Some Puritans took pride in their learning by giving their children obscure Biblical names they would expect nobody else to have heard of, like Mahershalalhasbaz.
Still others chose Biblical words completely at random and named their children things like Maybe or Notwithstanding. Along with the famous scarlet A for adultery, Puritans could be forced to wear a B for blasphemy, C for counterfeiting, D for drunkenness, and so on.
Wasting time in Massachusetts was literally a criminal offense, listed in the law code, and several people were in fact prosecuted for it. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote of Massachusetts Puritanism: A typical Massachusetts week would begin in the church, which doubled as the town meeting hall.
There were no decorations except a giant staring eye on the pulpit to remind churchgoers that God was watching them. Townspeople would stand up before their and declare their shame and misdeeds, sometimes being forced to literally crawl before the other worshippers begging for forgiveness.
THen the minister would give two two-hour sermons back to back.
The entire affair would take up to six hours, and the church was unheated for some reason they stored all their gunpowder there, so no one was allowed to light a fireand this was Massachusetts, and it was colder in those days than it is now, so that during winter some people would literally lose fingers to frostbite Fischer: Everyone would stand there with their guns they were legally required to bring guns, in case Indians attacked during the sermon and hear about how they were going to Hell, all while the giant staring eye looked at them.
So life as a Puritan was pretty terrible. On the other hand, their society was impressively well-ordered. Teenage pregnancy rates were the lowest in the Western world and in some areas literally zero. Murder rates were half those in other American colonies.
Government was conducted through town meetings in which everyone had a say. Women had more equality than in most parts of the world, and domestic abuse was punished brutally. In some ways the Puritans seem to have taken the classic dystopian bargain — give up all freedom and individuality and art, and you can have a perfect society without crime or violence or inequality.
That was going too far. The Cavaliers The Massachusetts Puritans fled England in the s partly because the king and nobles were oppressing them.
In the s, English Puritans under Oliver Cromwell rebelled, took over the government, and killed the king.
The nobles not unreasonably started looking to get the heck out.The "Arviv Club," was the Studio 54 of Toronto, Canada in the 's. Only the beautiful, famous or connected were granted red carpet/VIP entry. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Overview: Austria demonstrated continued commitment to countering terrorism, and U.S.‑Austria law enforcement cooperation remained benjaminpohle.coma’s Office for State Protection and Counterterrorism (BVT), the key counterterrorism agency within the Ministry of the Interior, reported ongoing radicalization to violence efforts by violent Islamist extremist groups.
A prison of a grander scale was needed to fulfill the prison society's mission. For repentance to truly happen, the complete isolation of each prisoner would need to occur, and this was impossible to do in these overcrowded jails.
Construction of Eastern State Penitentiary began on a cherry orchard outside of Philadelphia in Prisons Today: Questions in the Age of Mass Incarceration, a new exhibit at Eastern State Penitentiary, sheds light on these issues.
It elicits personal connections to recent historic changes in the U.S. criminal justice system, encourages reflection, supports dialogue, and suggests steps that visitors can take to help shape the evolution of the American . I. Medieval Icelandic crime victims would sell the right to pursue a perpetrator to the highest bidder.
18th century English justice replaced fines with criminals bribing prosecutors to drop cases.