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Behaviorism[ edit ] This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century based on animal learning experiments by Ivan PavlovEdward ThorndikeEdward C.
TolmanClark L. Hulland B. Many psychologists used these results to develop theories of human learning, but modern educators generally see behaviorism as one aspect of a holistic synthesis.
Teaching in behaviorism has been linked to training, emphasizing the animal learning experiments. Since behaviorism consists of the view of teaching people how to do something with rewards and punishments, it is related to training people.
Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of verbal behavior   and wrote "The Technology of Teaching",   an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction.
Ogden Lindsley developed a learning system, named Celeration, that was based on behavior analysis but that substantially differed from Keller's and Skinner's models. Cognitivism[ edit ] Cognitive science underwent significant change in the s and s. While retaining the empirical framework of behaviorismcognitive psychology theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning by considering how human memory works to promote learning.
The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley's working memory model were established as theoretical frameworks. The Cognitive concepts of working memory formerly known as short term memory and long term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science.
Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky.
Today researchers are concentrating on topics like cognitive loadinformation processing and media psychology. These theoretical perspectives influence instructional design. This form of constructivism has a primary focus on how learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality and with other learners who bring different perspectives.
Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge.
Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners.
Educators utilizing a constructivist perspective may emphasize an active learning environment that may incorporate learner centered problem-based learningproject-based learningand inquiry-based learningideally involving real-world scenarios, in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities.
An illustrative discussion and example can be found in the s deployment of constructivist cognitive learning in computer literacy, which involved programming as an instrument of learning.
Instructional design The extent to which e-learning assists or replaces other learning and teaching approaches is variable, ranging on a continuum from none to fully online distance learning.
For example, 'hybrid learning' or ' blended learning ' may refer to classroom aids and laptops, or may refer to approaches in which traditional classroom time is reduced but not eliminated, and is replaced with some online learning. Synchronous learning refers to the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period.
Examples are face-to-face discussion, online real-time live teacher instruction and feedback, Skype conversations, and chat rooms or virtual classrooms where everyone is online and working collaboratively at the same time.
Since students are working collaboratively, synchronized learning helps students become more open minded because they have to actively listen and learn from their peers. Synchronized learning fosters online awareness and improves many students' writing skills.
At the professional educational level, training may include virtual operating rooms.
Asynchronous learning is beneficial for students who have health problems or who have child care responsibilities. They have the opportunity to complete their work in a low stress environment and within a more flexible time frame.
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